Causes & Risk Factors
The TB is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis caused complex. The species Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis (most frequently), M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, M. Canetti and M. bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guérin) are only the last mentioned bacterial species not reportable.
a} A special feature of TB is the slow growth of the pathogens. The tuberculosis bacteria divide only once a day, while, for example, darmbacteria divide every 10 minutes. Therefore, the disease usually proceeds creepily and develops slowly over many weeks. In order to safely kill all bacteria, the drug treatment must, therefore, be long enough and with a combination of different medicines.
b) The effects are very much dependent on which regions and organs are affected. It is assumed that TB will be healed without treatment in one-third of the cases, one-third of the patients remain chronic, and a third die from months to years
TB is typically transmitted by the smallest droplet cores (aerosols) which are not visible to the naked eye and contain tuberculosis bacteria. In case of contact with infectious TB patients, the patient and the contact person should wear mouth protection. If the droplets stick to the wall or to the floor of a room after the coughing, the risk of infection is over, because usually they are then not thrown back into the air again. In dust, tubercle bacilli can theoretically survive for a long time, but also the risk of infection is extremely low.
The most common localization of TB is the lung ( pulmonary tuberculosis ).
A) Bacteriological examination
B) tuberculin skin test
Forecast & History
Tuberculosis was once one of the most terrible diseases (“white plague”). Many people were literally created by them Tb has also been drastically reduced by means of hygienic measures and a better diet.There is also a decisive decline in Tb -effective drugs, but the effects of globalization and the resulting migratory movements with human migration also occur. Uncomplicated tuberculosis can be cured with a sufficiently long and appropriate medication treatment, the risk of a regression is then extremely low. The healing prospects are all the better, the earlier the diagnosis is made and the therapy is started.